Bipolar is apsychiatric condition with periods of mood swings between elevated mood also called maniac and depressed mood. These differ from the typical mood swings most people experience. Sometimes it also present with psychotic symptoms. When the person is in mania phase, he/she feels euphoric or very irritable.
Elevated dopamine levels are responsible for manic phase. Homeostatic down regulation system increases dopamine mediated G protein – coupled receptors. This mechanism decreases dopamine transmission in depressive phase. Homeostatic up regulation brings elevated levels of dopamine. Glutamate levels also increases in manic phase.
Manic Episode: A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, irritable mood and increased energy lasting at least 1 week and present most of the day.
Also three or more of the following symptoms are present:
The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in their functioning or necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others
Hypomanic Episode: Same symptoms like above lasting at least 4 consecutive days. But this episode is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or necessitate hospitalization.
Basing on DSM V criteria and mental health evaluation a psychiatrist will make the diagnosis.